The holy earth project: Formation and evolution of a protoplanetary disk: combining observations, simulations and cosmochemical constraints

Séminaire organisé par Alessandro Morbidelli du 6 au 11 novembre 2023


Adnan Ali AHMAD (Commisariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives – Gif sur Yvette, France), Asmita BHANDARE (College de France / IBENS / CIRB – Munich, France), Sébastien CHARNOZ (IPGP – Paris, France), Benoit COMMERCON (College de France / IBENS / CIRB – Lyon, France), Cornelis DULLEMOND (Zentrum für Astronomie – Heidelberg, Germany, Allemagne), Tristan GUILLOT (CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur – Nice, France), Patrick HENNEBELLE (Laboratoire d’études du rayonnement et de la matière en astrophysique (LERMA), Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Ecole Normale supérieure de Paris – Paris, France), Yueh-Ning LEE (National Taiwan Normal University – Taipei, Taïwan), Francesco LOVASCIO (College de France / IBENS / CIRB – Lyon, France), Yves MARROCCHI (CRPG-CNRS – Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France), Raphael MARSCHALL (CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur – Nice, France), Bernard MARTY (CRPG – Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France), Anaëlle MAURY (Commisariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives – Gif/Yvette, France), Alessandro MORBIDELLI (Collège de France – Paris, France), Tamami OKAMOTO (Earth-Life Science Institute – Tokyo, France)

Extrait d’ouvrage soumis à la revue scientifique “Astronomy & Astrophysics” : Formation and evolution of a protoplanetary disk : combining observations, simulations and cosmochemical constraints


Une image de la nébuleuse L1527 observée par la caméra infrarouge NIRCam du télescope spatial James Webb. La nébuleuse a la forme d’un sablier coloré avec un étroit diaphragme central. La protoétoile est cachée dans ce diaphragme par un disque protoplanétaire vu par la tranche, qui apparait comme un segment sombre. L’enveloppe de gaz et poussière qui entoure l‘étoile en formation est sombre et cache la lumière des étoiles et des galaxies en arrière-plan. La lumière de la protoétoile s’échappe seulement au-dessus et en dessous du disque protoplanétaire, illuminant le gaz et la poussière environnants, là où la densité de l’enveloppe est moindre à cause de la matière éjectée par l’étoile dans la direction verticale. Copyright: NASA, ESA, CSA.

The formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks remains elusive. We have numerous astronomical observations of young stellar objects of different ages with their envelopes and/or disks; moreover the numerical simulations of star and disk formation have made tremendous progress, with realistic equations of state for the gas and treating the interaction of matter and the magnetic field, using the full set on non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics equations. Yet, it is not fully clear how a disk forms: from inside out or outside in, where the material accreted onto the disk falls and comes from, the evolution of dust in the disks, the appearance of structures. These unknowns limit our understanding of how planetesimals and planets form and evolve.


We attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the protosolar disk, guided by the large amount of cosmochemical constraints derived from the study of meteorites, while using astronomical observations and numerical simulations as a guide of which scenarios may be plausible.


Our approach is highly interdisciplinary. We do not present new observations or simulations, but combine in an original manner a large number of published results concerning young stellar objects observations, numerical simulations, and the chemical, isotopic and petrological nature of meteorites to reconstruct the history of the protoplanetary disk at the origin of our Solar system.


We achieve a plausible and coherent view of the evolution of the protosolar disk that is consistent with the cosmochemical constraints and compatible with observations of other protoplanetary disks and sophisticated numerical simulations. The evidence that high-temperature condensates, CAIs and AOAs, formed near the protosun before being transported to the outer disk can be explained by either an early phase of vigorous radial spreading of the disk, or fast transport of these condensates from the vicinity of the protosun towards large disk radii via the protostellar outflow. The assumption that the material accreted towards the end of the infall phase was isotopically distinct allows us to explain the observed dichotomy in nucleosynthetic isotopic anomalies of meteorites and leads to intriguing predictions on the isotopic composition of refractory elements in comets. When the infall of material waned, the disk started to evolve as an accretion disk. Initially, dust drifted inwards, shrinking the radius of the dust component to ∼ 45 au, probably about 1/2 of the width of the gas component. Then structures must have emerged, producing a series of pressure maxima in the disk which trapped the dust on My timescales. This allowed planetesimals to form at radically distinct times without changing significantly of isotopic properties. There was no late accretion of material onto the disk via streamers. The disk disappeared in 5 Myr, as indicated by paleomagnetic data in meteorites.


The evolution of the protosolar disk seems to have been quite typical in terms of size, lifetime, and dust behavior, suggesting that the peculiarities of the Solar system with respect to extrasolar planetary system probably originate from the chaotic nature of planet formation and not at the level of the parental disk.

Auteurs: Alessandro Morbidelli, Yves Marrocchi, Adnan Ali Ahmad, Asmita Bhandare, Sébastien Charnoz, Benoît Commerçon, Cornellis P. Dullemond, Tristan Guillot, Patrick Hennebelle, Yueh-Ning Lee, Francesco Lovascio, Raphael Marschall, Bernard Marty, Anaëlle Maury, and Okamoto Tamami.

OpenEdition vous propose de citer ce billet de la manière suivante :
ldiebold (10 juillet 2024). The holy earth project: Formation and evolution of a protoplanetary disk: combining observations, simulations and cosmochemical constraints. Les carnets de la Fondation des Treilles. Consulté le 22 juillet 2024 à l’adresse

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