Development and evolution of the еуе
Symposium organized by Sacha Glardon and Walter J. Gehung from 31 August – 6 September 2001.
Blackshaw Seth (Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA) Callaerts Patrick (University of Houston, USA), Domínguez Maria (Instituto de Neurosciencias, San Juan, Espagne), Gehring Walter, J. (Universitaet Basel, Suisse), Glardon Sacha (Universitaet Basel, Suisse), Gruss Peter (Max-Planck Institute, Gottingen, Allemagne), Jamrich Milan (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA), Kurata Schoichiro (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai, Japon),Lang Richard (Research Foundation, Cincinnati, USA), Loosli Felix (European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Allemagne), Mc lnnes Roderick (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada), Plaza Serge (Centre de biologie du développement, Toulouse), Salo Boix Еmili (Facultat de Biologia, Barcelona, Espagne), Schorderet Daniel (Université de Lausanne, Suisse), Treisman Jessica (Nyu School of Medicine, New York, USA), Van Heyningen Veronica (Western General Hospital, Édimbourg, Grande-Bretagne), Walldorf Uwe (Universitaet Hoenheim, Stuttgart, Allemagne), Zhang Xin (Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, USA).
Walter J. Gehring and Veronica van Heyningen organized this meeting with the air of bringing together developmental biologists and medical researchers working on the development of the еуе in organisms as different as humans, mice, fruit flies, sea squirts and flat worms. We discussed the implications of the work presented with respect to the evolution of the еуе, the possibility of using mode! organism — especially Drosophila — to study human еуе diseases and the maintenance of the еуе as a functional organ throughout the lifespan of an animal. Although working on a variety of different species, the same or very similar developmental mechanisms are used by these organisms to construct, for example, an insect complex еуе, a vertebrate lens еуе or the pigment сuр ocellus of an annelid. This commonality was the emerging theme during the meeting and nucleated around one transcription factor, namely Рах6.
Рах6 contains two DNA binding domains — a paired domain anda homeodomain — and seems to be at the top of a complex network used to construct eyes throughout metazoans. As shown in elegant experiments performed in the laboratory of Walter J. Gehring, the Drosophila Рах6 homologue eyeless is able to induce fully differentiated eyes if expressed in differentiating tissue normally giving rise to antennae, wings or legs. Similarly, the laboratory of Richard Lang succeeded in inducing supernumerary eyes in a vertebrate, the tadpole larvae of the frog Xenopus, by the injection of Рах6 messenger RNA, and Shoichiro Kurata reported the induction of еуе structures in Xenopus by injection of Drosophile eyeless messenger RNA.
Beside the scientific discussions, there was enough time during our stay in the marvelous settings of Les Treilles to enjoy the bеauty of the landscape and nature of southern France, as well as to attend the concert of the piano class of the Académie Musicale de Villecroze to which we were kindly invited.
The first part of the meeting covered different aspects of the development of vertebrate eyes including those of humans.
Veronica van Heyningen opened the meeting elaborating on the human Рах6 gene. This gene is mutated in patients with the inherited eye disease Aniridia — meaning absence of the ocular iris. It was first identified in mice and men where the involvement in eye development was first noted. Classical Aniridia is caused by loss of one functional copy of the gene, showing that gene dosage is critical for correct еyе development. Aniridia (and the homologous mouse abnormality, Snell еуе) turns out to affect not just the iris, but all the components of the еуе : retina, lens and cornea as well as the iris. In fact the gene also affects the nose, different parts of the brain and the neural tube. The examination of the brain structure of adult Aniridia patients by magnetic resonance imaging (МRI) revealed the unexpected absence of the anterior commissure in a high proportion of Aniridia patients, most of whom also had impaired olfaсtory function.
The variability of the рах6 mutation-associated phenotypеs suggests that рах6 plays a finely balanced role in еуеdevelopment, in pathways where a number of other genes also participate.
Among the examined Aniridia cases, Veronica van Нeyningen described five patients where the рах6 gene itself was not mutated, but the disease was associated with chromosomal rearrangements outside the transcribed portion of the gene. This suggested that there might be long‑range regulatory elements outside the gene (over 150 kb for the Рах6 gene in which the transcription unit covers only 22 kb), which are essential for correct developmental expression of Рах6. Dissecting the downstream regions to assess their regulatory role : it was possible to show that a number of sequence-conserved elements are present downstream of Рах6 and these can fulfill different enhancer functions in еyе and brain development when tested in reporter transgeniсsystems. This means that Рах6 expression in diffеrent regions of the eye and brain is controlled by overlapping but functionally distinct elements. At present, it is not understood how these elements work together when present in the normally functioning genetic environment. It is clear, however, that complex interactions must take place within the locus to allow different control elements targeting the same tissue to fulfill their role in regulating the spatiotemporal and quantitative expression of Рах6.
The novel demonstration of such long-range gene regulation emphasizes that much of vertebrate complexity has arisen in control regions flanking the minimal transcription unit of the gene.
Daniel Schorderet introduced the first element of the human eye essential for normal еуе fonction: the cornea. Without a proper cornea, light cannot pass through the lens and reach the retina. Analysis of 61 families with corneal dystrophies (CD) associated with amyloid deposits identified a single gene — BIGH3 — as the underlying cause. BIGH3 encodes a transforming growth factor beta induced protein with four regions homologous to fasciclin. It is part of the extracellular matriz and is ubiquitously expressed except in the brain. Interеstingly, four different еуе diseases (Lattice CD type 1, Avellio CD, Granular Groenouw type1 CD and Reis Bückers CD) are ail caused by mutations in BIGH3. Mutated BIGH3 is apparentlу secreted normally, but its overexpression causes programmed cell death (apoptosis). Since the gene is as well expressed in tissues other than the cornea the question arises as to whу there is оnly deposit formation in the cornea. The treatment for these distases is corneal transplantation. After receiving a graft, the disease « reenters » the graft and deposits are formed again. Therefore, the protein seems to diffuse into the graft. Daniel Schorderet raised the question of whether a functional homologue of the vertebrate cornea exists in Drosophila and whether it is possible to study BIGH3 and its associated diseases in the fly.
Peter Gruss discussed different aspects of Рах6 in mice, focusing on upstream regulators, downstream effectors and interacting factors. First he described the cell type specific (Cre-mediated) loss of Рах6 activity in the retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). This allows studying the loss ofPax6 in these cells in the context of the otherwise intact developing еуе. The multipotent RPCs will give rise to all different retinal cell-types (Retinal ganglion cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells, rod and cone photorecep- tors, bipolar cells and Müller glia cells). After the inactivation of Рах6 in RPCs the retinogenic potential of these cells becomes restricted to the exclusive generation of amacrine cells. Hence Рах6 is not оnlу essential in the еarlу initiation of the еуе developmental program but as well in the later control of developmental steps such as the retinal differentiation from the RPCs. Subsequently, Peter Gruss described the identification of Necab (neuronal calcium binding protein) as a downstream target of Рах6. Necab overlaps with Рах6 expression and Рах6 is required and sufficient for Necab expression. Finally MAPL1 (Microtubule associated protein-like), a factor interacting with Рах6, was presented. MAPL1 shows no homology to the classical microtubule associated proteins and is the founding member of a family of multifunctional proteins. Peter Gruss proposed a model for the function of MAPL1: as there is ectopic cytoplasmic location of the Рах6 protein mediated by MAPL1, MAPL1 can associate with Рах6 and translocates Рах6 to the cytoplasm where it is non-functional. This is an absolutely new model for the regulation of transcription.
Milan Jamrich started the discussion on the Rx gene, a homeobox gene conserved throughout evolution. Whereas the gene is essential for vertebrate еуе development, it is not needed during еуе development in Drosophile in the еуе imaginal disc. In Xenopus, the Rx gene defines a single еуе field, which later gets split into two fields giving rise to the two bilateral eyes. Rx knock out mice do not show any visible еуе structures. In Small еуе mice, these are mice mutant for Рах6, Rx is still expression detectable, hence Rx is not Рах6 dependent. The immediate discussion came up when the change of brain to еуе function from invertebrates to vertebrates took place. To answer this question it might be interesting to isolate the respective gene from Amphioxus and Ascidians.
Subsequently Milan Jamrich focused on the forkhead gene FoxE3, which shows lens specific expression. It seems that this gene inhibits the differentiation of the lens. There is a naturally occurring mutation for FoxЕ3 in mice, named Dysgenetic lens. These mice have a fusion of the lens and cornea. A family of human patients with cataract and other eye specific defects do show a mutation in the FoxE3 gene.
Richard Lang reported briefly about the induction of supernumerary eyes in Xenopus by the injection of Рах6 messenger RNA. The ectopic eyes have near normal morphology and retinal lamination appears normal. The ectopic eyes can form anywhere in the head, but nowhere else, and they are only induced upon Pax6 injection in dorsal blastomeres. Тhereafter he focused on the function of Fsx6 control elements : there are specific enhancer elements for the expression in the olfactory region, the pancreas, the lens, the cornea, the telencephalon and the amacrine cells of the retina. A conserved control element — found in the pufferfish Fugu, in the mouse and in humans — regulates Pax6 expression in the lens placide, an ectodermal thickening that presages lens development. This so called ectoderm enhancer is regulated by Fgfr and ВМР7 activity. At the end of his presentation Richard Lang discussed extensively the whole known network of factors regulating through different enhancer elements the proliferation and differentiation of the lens.
Seth Blackshaw presented the genomic analysis of the mouse retina, which he performed in the laboratory of Constance Cepko. A serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) using libraries generated from both mature and developing mouse retina, generating over 700,000 SAGE tags, was performed to identify genes that show dynamic expression during retinal development, and to catalog the full set of genes expressed by mature mammalian photoreceptors. It was possible to identify by this method the expression of nearly 750 genes, 400 of which showed dynamic expression during retinal development and 270 of which were specific to or highly enriched in photoreceptors. These identified genes were verified by analyzing their expression patterns using in situ hybridization. Since nearly half of ail known retinal disease genes show photoreceptor-specific or enriched expression, it is anticipated that this data set will allow the identification of many relevant retinal disease genes. It will be interesting to see in the future how much overlap there is between the genes used during vertebrate retina development as соm- pared to Drosophiha еуе development.
After this huge amount of data, Roderich Mclnnes continued with a discussion of the Chx10. The Chx10 protein is a homeodomain transcription factor that has been shown to be essential for the development of the еуе in vertebrates. Chx10 is necessary for the normal proliferation of the retinal progenitor cells and die specification, differentiation or maintenance of one of the major classes of interneurons, called rod bipolar cells. In humans and mice, homozygous mutations in Chx10 cause micropthalmia. In the worm C. ele8cгns, which has no eyes, the Chx10 homologs, ceh-10, is also required for the differentiation of a subset of interneurons. Thus, highly conserved homologs of Chx10 appear to be required for interneuron development throughout evolution. Novel Chx10 homologs might exist in vertebrates and invertebrates, and also play essential roles in the formation of the brain. One identified vertebrate homolog, Vsx1, is expressed specifically in cone bipolar cells, another major class of interneuron; Roderich Mclnnes proposed that Vsx1 is essential for the differentiation or maintenance of cone bipolar cells. Unlike ChxlO, the Vsxl gene is rapidly evolving in vertebrates; this rapid evolution mау reflect the changing nature of cone photoreceptors and color vision in vertebrates.
To take advantage of the powerful genetics of Dгosophilьz, andto use Drosophda homologs of ChxlO to define the genetic hierarchy of transcription factors in which ChxlO fonctions, two Dгosophilгx homologs of Chx10, dChx1 and dChx3 were identified. dChx1 and dChx3 are located at the same locus just 33 kb apart from each other. In third instar larvae, both dChx1 anddChx3 are expressed in the dorsal and ventral regions of the eye-antennal discs and the ventral region of leg discs. wingless, a Drosophila Wnt homolog, is expressed in similar regions of eye-antennal discs where it functions as a patterning morphogen that defines the boundaries of the retinal field. Ectopic expression of wingless in the еуе disc leads to ectopic expression of both dChx1 and dChx3, indicating that expression of the dChx’s тау be activated in response to wingless signaling. Ectopic expression of ChxlO or dChx1 in the developing еуе disc leads to a loss of photoreceptor cell types. This phenotype is consistent with dChx functioning downstream of wingless to repress retinal cell fate at the boundary of the retinal field. It is likely that the genetic analysis of the dChx genes will provide insight into the role of these genes in the development of the fly brain, and, by extension, into the precise function of the corresponding genes in vertebrates.
Xin Zhang, who is working in the laboratory of Richard Maas, described his search for upstream regulators of the vertebrate Рах6 gene.
In vertebrates, the earliest demonstrable requirement for Рaх6 is in the formation of the lens placode. Meis1 and Meis2 homeoproteins are direct regulators of Рах6 expression in the prospective lens ectoderm. In mice, Meis 1 and 2 are developmentally expressed in a pattern remarkably similar to Рах6 and their expression is Pax6-independent. Biochemical and transgenic experiments reveal that Meis] and2 bind a specific sequence in the Рах6 lens placode enhancer that is required for its activity. Furthermore, Рах6 and Meis2 exhibit a strong genetic interaction in lens development, and when expressed in embryonic lens ectoderm, dominant negative forms of Mets down-regulate endogenous Рах6. This contrasts with Drosophile, where the single Meis homolog homothorax has been shown to negatively regulate еуе formation. Thus, despite the striking evolutionary conservation of Рах6 function, vertebrates uniquely regulate Рах6 expression in the developing lens.
The vertebrate session was closed by a presentation by Sacha Glardon discussing the evolutionary closely related invertebrate subphyla Urochordata and Cephalochordata. In the lower chordate branch, Рах6 has been isolated for the ascidian Phallusia mammillata. In the developing ascidian tadpole, Рах6 is strongly expressed in the sensory vesicle, including the developing occlus, the photoreceptive structure of this an!-mal. The ocellus consists of one pigment cell, three lens cells and 15-20 photoreceptor cells. In the lancelet Branchiostoma flovidae, Рах6 is expressed in the posterior brain vesicle where the photoreceptive lamellar organ is located (the presumed homologue of the vertebrate pineal еуе) and in the anterior frontal еуе, the presumed homologue of the vertebrate paired eyes. The organs of Hesse, that form conspicuous eyecups distributed along the length of the spinal cord, do not express Рах6. These ganglionic photoreceptors appear to be rare exceptions to the general rule that animal photoreceptors develop from a genetic program triggered by Рах6. If the definition of an еуе involves a photoreceptor in the vicinity of a shading pigment cell, which allows the detection of the direction of light, connected to a brain (cerebral еуе), it might be that “only” such cerebral eyes use a Рах6 dependent developmental mechanism to construct them. In al Bilateria studied so far the Рах6 expressing eyes are cerebral eyes, while the non-cerebral Hesse eyecups of the lancelet do not express Рах6. Would it be possible to define an еуе by the presence or absence of Рах6 expression ?
Drosophila melanogaster and other invertebrates
The second part of the meeting covered different aspects of the development of the Drosophila complex eye as well as the pigment cup occlus of nemerteans, planarians and annelids.
Walter Gehring started this section by giving an overview of the different aspects of the evolution of eyes throughout metazoans. Hе set up the hypothesis that is similar to biosynthеtic pathways, which might have evolved by retrograde evolution; morphogenetic pathways might have evolved by intercalary evolution. In this model, a controlling transcription factor (e.g. Рах6) regulates a final target gene (e.g. rhodopsin) and into this simple regulatory loop genes get recruited (e.g. crystallins). In a gene chip screen using whole Drosophila genome chips, a chaperon (heat shock protein) has been found, a gene which was most probably just recruited into the еуе developmental pathway. This chaperon still shows a shared function: on the one hand it is heat inducible and on the other hand it is under the control of Рах6. Another hypothesis Walter Gehring presented was that the еуе evolved before the brain, as an organ- ism first needs an information collecting organ, before the information processing organ can evolve. It will be essential to isolate lix and Рах genes from protozoans with light sensitive organelles to answer this question in more detail.
An interesting experiment using the ribbonworm Lineus (nemertini) indicated the possibility of a fonction for Рах6 in the maintenance of eyes and the retina. In Lineus, Рах6 is expressed in the pigment сир occlus in regenerating heads. If double stranded Рах6 RNA (RNAi) is injected into the regeneration blastema, no eyes regenerate; hence Рах6 is neces- sary for еуе regeneration. In addition, if Рах6 dsRNA is injected into the head of an adult nemertean, the eyes dis appear, hence Рах6 is essential for the maintenance of the eyes. Is this a nemertean specific effect or is Рах6 also necessary in vertebrates for the maintenance of the neuroretina? The first experiments showed that Рах6 is indeed expressed in the adult retina of vertebrates. Furthermore, the human disease Malattia Leventinese, an early onset of age — related macular degeneration, is caused by mutations in the extracellular matrix protein EFEMP1, which contains a lot of EGF repeats and a putative DSL domain, indicative for Notch ligands. As Shoichiro Kurata showed in his presentation, Notch is upstream of Рах6. In summary, these data might hint towards a fonction of Рах6 in the adult retina and an involvement in retinal degeneration.
After this beautiful connection in developmental biology between diverse organisms, evolutionary thinking and human disease, Patrick Callaerts focused more on brain development in Drosophila. Не presented different approaches to looking for eyeless target genes. One example he focused on was the isolation of genomic fragments binding the еyeless paired domain. Thus he could isolate a DNA fragment close to the fasciclinII locus. This genomic fragment fused to the reporter gene LacZ leads to lacZ expression anterior to the morphogenetic furrow.
Serge Plaza discussed the existence of two рах6 genes, eyeless (еу) and twin of eyeless (toy) in Drosophila, which raised the questions of redundancy, gene duplication and functional specification of the two transcription factors for taking over different tasks with regard to еyе development. Despite a high sequence homology in their DNA binding domains, еу and toy appear to exhibit different biological roles during development. These genes are differentiallуexpressed during embryonic development and in the еye disc, both are co-expressed in the compound еyе region but onlуtoit is expressed in the ocellar region. The three ocelli are located on the top of the adult head and are simple eуes. Eуeless mutants impair compound еуе formation but not ocellar development. The precise role of toit during Drosophila development is still not known. Analyses of elements that control expression patterns of genes involved in еarlу еуеdevelopment provide additional details on the genetic hierarсhу during еуе specification. Therefore, Serge Plaza has investigated the details of the еуе specific expression of the sine oculis gene. The еуе specific so 10 enhancer is directlуbound and positively regulated by eyeless and toy through different sites. Rescue experiments of the sol mutant using different mutated versions of the so 10 enhancer affecting the ey or toy binding sites demonstrate that toit and ey exert different fonctions in the formation of the compound eуes and the ocelli through the same enhancer. Thus, both genes exhibit common fonctions with regard to visual organ development in Drosophila, but diverge to specify different visual systems. This analуsis of ey and toy dnablee the dissection of the evolutionary changes that took place after the gene duplication event leading to two Рaхб genes during insect evolution. Since toy induces еу expression in the еуеprogenotor cells during embryogenesis but not vice versa, and since both toy and ey cooperate in differentiallу regulating the target gene so, this might reflect the fact that earlier in evolution so was regulated by a single рах6 gene, therefore the ey gene has been intercalated into the eyе developmental pathway between toy and so.
Shochiro Kurata followed with a discussion of the Notch signaling pathway during organ formation. In addition to eyeless, which induces supernumerary eyes upon ectopic expression, some other Drosophile genes have been identified that are capable of inducing organogenesis when expressed ectopically. The vestigial gene, for example, induces wings and haleteres in other regions of the body than the thorax and Distal-less is responsible for appendage formation. To understand organogenesis, the еluсidation of the regulatory mechanisms of these master control genes is essential. The Notch signaling pathway defines an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell interaction meсhanism, which throughout development controls the ability of precursor cells to respond to developmental signals. Notch signaling regulates ey expression during eye induction. It is also involved in the determination of Drosophila organogenesis in a context dependent manner, and regulates the respective control genes eyeless, vestigial and Distal-less. These results suggest that Notch signaling is involved in a common regulatory рathway for the determination of the identity of the various Drosophile appendages.
Uwe Walldorf showed antibody staining of toy and ey. There is not a lot of overlap in the expression of the two genes except in the mushroom body and the еуе imaginal disc. toy shows a much broader expression.
Whereas ey is detected оnly anterior to the morphogenetic furrow (MF), toy is epressed anterior and posterior to the MF, but not in the ME This fits very nicely with Walter Gehring’s hypothesis of intercalary evolution, where the master control gene still controls steps of final differentiation. Therefore, toy might for example still regulate the expression of rhodopsin behind the MF, a theory strongly questioned on the basis of a theory currently available expression data of ey.
Maria Dominguez discussed growth control during Drosophile еуе formation. Growth of the organ primordium during organogenesis leads to thе characteristic shape and size of the final organ. Early growth of the compound еyе primordium involves first the division of the еye primordium into distinct but adjacent dorsal and ventral cell populations, that correspond to the dorsal and ventral halves of the adult еуе. Cеll-cell interactions between the dorsal and ventral cells define a specialized region, the dorsal-ventral organizеr, which controls growth and patterning. The mechanisms by which dorsal-ventral organizers regulate growth have been extensively studied in the Drosophila wing and the vertebrate limbs. Again it involves the Notch signaling pathway. Target genes of Notch in the eye are three genes prеviously identified as retinal determination genes, the eyegone (eyg, a Рaх6-like protein), the eyes absent (еуa) and the sine oculis (so/Siхl) genes. Notch promotes the proliferation and growth of the compound еye primordium through transcriptional activation of еyg and repression of eуa and so genes. The reduction of either the eya or the so gene, in combination with a gain of Notch function, results in giant eyes. In summary, here data suggest that eya and so shape the growth of the еуе disc by blocking proliferation stimulated by Notch.
A wave of differentiation in the Drosophila еуe disc is driven by the Hedgehog (1h) protein, which is first expressed at the posterior margin and then in the differentiating photoreceptors. Jessica Treisman discussed five novel genes that affect Hedgehog function in еуе dise patterning. The sightless (sit) gene is required for Hh signaling: sit mutant еуе or wing dises express hh but fail to activate hh target genes. sit encodes a transmembrane protein required in Hh-producing cells, which is predicted to add an essential fatty acid modification to 1h. act up encodes a regulator of actif polymerization, which is required for cells to transiently constrict their apical surfaces. This change in cell shape appears to restrict the spread of the Hh protein. Mutations in the blïnd spot (bli) and kohtalo (kto) genes have identical phenotypes; thеу arrest photoreceptor differentiation at a stage following expression of the first Hh target genes. bli and kto encode the transcriptional mediator complex subunots TRAP240 and TR Р230. In the wing disc, thеy are required for Hh-mediated compartment boundary formation; however, they are also likely to control aspects of the function of other signaling pathways, perhaps regulating specific targets of several transcription factors. Finally, hyperplastic discs (hyd) appears to be a negative regulator of 1h pathway activity. hyd mutant cells in the anterior eуе disc ectopically express hh, leading to ectopie differentiation and overgrowth; hyd encodes a ubiquitin protein ligase that mat’ be involved in degrading a regulator of hh expression.
Emili Salo elaborated on the analysis of the еуе genetic network during planarian regeneration. Freshwater planarians detect light intensity through their eyespots. Although being very simple, thеу contain two cell types: photoreceptor and pigment cells. The photoreceptor cells are bipolar verve cells that connect directly to the cephalic ganglia. They also differentiate into a microvilli extending from the dendrite, the rhabdomer, where the opsin photopigment accumulates. The pigmented cells aggregate to form a cup in the dorsal head region. In the air of elucidating the planarian еye genetic network, Emili Salo has characterized two Рах6 genes (GtPax6A andGtPax6B) and two sine oculis genes (Gtsix-1 and Gtsix-3). рах6 genes are expressed in the central nervous system and to a small extent in the еуe cells. Gtsix-1 is expressed in the precursor and differentiated еуe cells and Gtsix-3 is expressed in the cephalic branches. Loss of function analуsis by the injection of double stranded RNA (RNAi) during regeneration shows that the two Рах6 genes are dispensable, while the sine oculis gene Gtsix-1 is essential for еуе formation during head regeneration and for functional еуe maintenance in adult planarians. Such results suggest that other genes of the network, as for example Gtsix-1, can functionally substitute for Рах6.
In the final presentation by Felix Loosli, the vertebrates were once again represented. In the freshwater fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) the same genes as in all other organisms play key roles in earlу retina development, such as Six3 and рах6. Ectopic expression of either Six3 or рах6 results in the formation of additional retina in the mid- and hindbrain in medaka. The complete absence of eyes in the medaka fish mutation еyеless is the result of defective optic vesicle evagination. It should be mentioned here that the medaka eyeless mutation has nothing in common with the Drosophila eyeless mutation except the rame. A defective Rx3 horneo‑
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box gene causes the eyeless mutation. The Six3- and Рах6- dependent retina determination does not require Rx3, but Rx3 is indispensable for the inotiation of optic vesicle evagination and for the control of proliferation.
То study evolutionary aspects of bilaterian еуе development, a simple invertebrate species, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, has been chosen for analysis. The Platynereis trochophora larva has morphologically simple pigment cup ocelli that are considered to represent an evolutionarily old formand are therefore of interest in the study of the evolution of the еye. It might be that the last common ancestor of invertebrates and vertebrates (Urbilateria) possessed such pigment cup ocеlli. For this reason the expression and function of genes that are homologous to known еуе specification genes, such as Рах6, Sixl, Six3 and Rx, were described in this organism. Preliminary data suggest that the function of come of these genes is evolutionary conserved. However some aspects of the expression of Рaхб differed from that in other species, hinting at an evolutionary plasticity of otherwise conserved gene function: White Рaхб is expressed in the larval, but not in the developing adult eуes, expression of sial/2 ondines the optic anlagen, covering the larval and the adult eуes.
The meeting was a great success, not onlу because of the science, but also because of the hospitality of the staff of Les Treilles and the inspiring beauty of the place. Our intensive discussions at Les Treilles challenged some of our notions on eye development and opened new and unexpected perspectives.